Philosophical Sufism and Legal Culture in Nusantara: An Epistemological Review

  • Fokky Fuad Wasitaatmadja Al Azhar Indonesia University, Indonesia
  • Wasis Susetio Esa Unggul University, Indonesia

Abstract

A research on the relation between sufism, sharia, and the local culture is essential for some reasons. First, Islamic philosophy and customary law (or the law of the peoples) are perceived as opposing each other. Second, Islamic philosophy, also in Geertz’s theory, regards Islam merely as the structure of religious orthodoxy. Third: the structure of Islamic orthodoxy, often portrayed as a highly rigid one, is often (seen as) conflicting with sufism in the world of Islamic scholarship. This paper aims to determine the dynamic relation between the spiritual values ​​of Sufism and traditional values ​​surviving in the so-called Nusantara legal culture. It also elaborates on the extent to which a distinct epistemology typical to sufism may contribute to enriching the cultural space of Nusantara law. As normative legal research, this paper employs the principle of legal culture developed by Lawrence M. Friedman. It concludes that the spiritual values ​​of sufism are not conflicting with the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. It would also argue that the construction of Nusantara legal culture has a unique character resulted from dynamic interaction of traditional values, on the one hand, and sufism on the other.


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Journals
Abdulah, Anzar and Ismail Suardi Wekke. "Origin of Islam in Indonesia." Interational Journal of Pure and Mathemacs 119, no. 8 (2018): 1149-1178.

Abidin, M. Zainal. “Islam Dan Tradisi Lokal Dalam Perspektif Multikulturalisme.” Millah 8, no. 2 (2009): 297-309.

Agussalim. “Javanese Religion, Islam or syncretism: Comparing Woodward’s Islam in Java and Beatty’s Varietiest of Javanese Religion.” IJIMS (International Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies) 3, no. 2 December (2013): 223-266.

Al-Qurtuby, Sumanto. “Arabs and "Indo-Arabs" in Indonesia: Historical dynamics, social relations and contemporary changes.” International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies 13, no. 2 (2017): 45-72.

Bidabad, Bijan. “Public International Law Principles: an Isamic Sufi Approach.” International Journal of Law and Management 53, no. 5 (2011): 313-341.

Erawadi. “Pemikiran Mistik-Filosofis: Studi Naskah Ni’Mat Al-Arwah Karya Muhammad ‘Asyiq.” Jurnal Tarbiyah 21, no. 2 (2014): 282-303.

Hermansyah. “Isam and Local Culture in Indonesia.” AL ALBAB - Borneo Journal of Religious Studies (BJRS) 3, no. 1 (2014): 340-359.

Khotimah, Khusnul. “Interkoneksitas Dalam Ajaran Sosial Tasawuf Sunni Dan Falsafi.” KOMUNIKA: Jurnal Dakwah Dan Komunikasi 9, no. 1 (2017): 36-59.

Saputro, M. Endy. “the Role of Religion and Agricultural Technology in Social Transformation.” Komunitas: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture 4, no. 1 (2013): 20-26.

Stanislaus, Reksosusilo C.M. “Islam in Indo-nesia.” Journal Vincentiana 39, no. 3 (2002): 11- 20.

Taufani. “Pengaruh Sufisme di Indonesia.” Potret Pemikiran 20, no. 1 (2016): 87-97.

Tualeka, Hamzah. “The History of Islam and Its Dissemination in Ambon-Lease, Maluku.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 5, no. 2 (2011): 296-312.

Wasitaatmaja, Fokky Fuad. “Hukum Islam dan Toleransi Tasawuf atas Budaya.” Jurnal Ilmiah Mimbar Demokrasi 17, no. 1 (2017): 6-19.

ZA., Tabrani & Masbur. “Islamic Perspectives On The Existence Of Soul And Its Influence In Human Learning (A Philosophical Analysis of the Classical and Modern Learning Theories).” Jurnal Edukasi: Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling 1, no. 2 (2016): 99-112.

Books
Al-Jauziyah, Ibnu Qoyyim. Madārif al-Sālikīn (Pendakian Menuju Allah, Penjabaran Konkrit Iyyāka naʻbudu wa iyyāka nastaʻīn. Jakarta: Penerbit Pustaka Al-Kautsar, 2009.

Al-Kurdi, Muhammad Amin. Tanwirul Qulub, Menerangi Qalbu, Manusia Bumi, Manusia Langit. Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka Hidayah, 2013.

Al-Taftazani, Abu Al-Wafa’, and al-Ghanimi. Sufi dari Zaman ke Zaman. Bandung: Pen-erbit Pustaka, 2003.

Azra, Azyumard. Renaisans Islam di Asia Tenggara, Sejarah Wacana & Kekuasaan. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya, 1999.

Banakar, Reza and Max Travers. Theory and Method in Sociolegal Research. London: Hart Publishing, 2005.

Bellah, Robert N. Beyond Belief: Menemukan Kembali Agama, Esei-Esei Tentang Agama Di Dunia Modern. Transleted by Rudy Harisyah Alam. Jakarta: Paramadina, 2000.

De Jonge, Huub and Nico Kaptein. Trans-cending Borders: Arabs, Politics, Trade, and Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden: KITLV, 2002.

Djayadiningrat, Hoesein, “Islam di Indone-sia." in Kenneth W. Morgan (eds.) Islam Jalan Lurus. Third Edition. Jakarta: PT Dunia Pustaka Jaya, 1986.

Friedman, Lawrence M. American Law, Intro-duction. Subtitles by Wisnu Basuki. Jakarta: PT. Tata Nusa, 2001.

Geertz, Clifford. The Religion of Java. London: Collier MacMillan Limited, 1960.

Hamka. Sejarah Umat Islam, Pra Kenabian Hingga Islam di Nusantara. Jakarta: Pen-erbit Gema Insani Press, 2016.

_____. Dari Perbendaharaan Lama. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2017.

_____. Islam dan Adat Minangkabau. Jakarta: Penerbit Panjimas, 1984.

Isa, Syaikh Abdul Kadir. Hakekat Tasawuf. Jakarta: Penerbit Qisthi Press, 2011.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. Pemberontakan Petani Banten 1888. Depok: Penerbit Komunitas Bambu, 2015.

Lapindus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Lombard, Denys. Nusa Jawa: Silang Budaya, Jaringan Asia. Jakarta: Penerbit Gramedia, 2008.

Mark, R. Woodward. Islam Jawa, Kesalehan Normatif versus Kebatinan. Yogyakarta: IRCiSoD, 1999.

Moore, Sally Falk. Law as Process, an Anthro-pological Approach. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.

Simuh. Islam dan Pergumulan Budaya Jawa. Jakarta:Penerbit Teraju, 2003.

Suwirta, Andi. Sejarah Islam: Tasawuf dan Proses Islamisasi di Indonesia. Bandung: Ju-rusan Pendidikan Sejarah FPIPS UPI, 2000.

Tjandrasasmita, Uka. Arkelogi Islam Nusanta-ra. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Grame-dia (KPG), 2009.

Websites
Jakarta, Ma’had Aly. “Islam Nusantara: Kontribusi Peradaban Global.” posted on July 17, 2017, acesed on April 3oth, 2020, http://www.mahadalyjakarta.com/islam-nusantara-kontribusi-peradaban-gelobal/.

Hosen, Nadirsyah. "Islam Nusantara: a local Islam with global ambitions?.” article Indonesia at Melbourne, Febrary 26, 2016, accesed on April 2th, 2020, https://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/islam-nusantara-a-local-islam-with-global-ambitions/.
Published
2020-05-28
How to Cite
WASITAATMADJA, Fokky Fuad; SUSETIO, Wasis. Philosophical Sufism and Legal Culture in Nusantara: An Epistemological Review. Al-Risalah, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 1, p. 75-86, may 2020. ISSN 2540-9522. Available at: <http://e-journal.lp2m.uinjambi.ac.id/ojp/index.php/al-risalah/article/view/558>. Date accessed: 11 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.30631/al-risalah.v20i1.558.
Section
Articles