The Military and Civil Supremacy in Indonesian Democracy: Towards an Ideal Model in Siyāsah Sharʻiyyah Perspective
In the history of Indonesia, civil-military relations changed in the reformasi era with the separation of the military and the police, resulting in the removal of the dual-function doctrine and military reform. Despite so, two decades after reformasi has not formed a standard and ideal mechanism to govern civil-military relations within the framework of objective civilian control. This paper addresses issues regarding (a) how the dual-function concept and internal reform within the military; (b) regulatory issues that govern military operations other than war; (c) the ideal model of civil-military relations in Indonesia to ensure democratic life and an overview of the siyāsah sharʻiyyah aspects. Using descriptive qualitative method and conducting discussions with military and human rights experts, this paper demonstrates that military reform in Indonesia after the New Order has not yet been fruitful to accomplish the mission to form professional soldiers. The military is still involved in political and civilian life under the pretext that there is no military assistance law. As a consequence, the ideal model of civilian control that puts the military under the control of civilian authority according to siyāsah sharʻiyyah principle has not been fully successful and effective.
Beeson, Mark. “Civil-Military Relations in Indonesia and the Philippines: Will the Thai Coup Prove Conta-gious?” Armed Forces and Society 34, no. 3 (2008): 474–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X07303607.
Bratdford, Jhon. “The Indonesian Mili-tary as A Professional Organization: Criteria and Ramifications for Re-form.” Vol. 73. RSIS Working Paper. Singapore: Nanyang Technological University, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2978249.
Carey, Peter. “The Indonesian Army and the State: Problems of Dwi Fungsi in Early Nineteenth-Century Perspective.” Indonesia Circle. School of Oriental & African Studies. Newslet-ter 9, no. 26 (1981): 51–58.
Feaver, Peter D. “Crisis as Shirking: An Agency Theory Explanation of the Souring of American Civil-Military Relations.” Armed Forces and Society Journal 24, no. 3 (1998): 407–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X9802400305.
Haseman, John B. “Indonesian Military Reform: More Than a Human Rights Issue.” Journal Southeast Asian Affairs. Vol. 2006. Maryland, USA, 2006. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/399603/summary.
Huntington, Samuel P. “Civilian Con-trol and The Constitution.” American Political Science Review 50, no. 03 (2011): 676–99. https: //doi.org/10. 2202/1540-8884.1457.
Laksamana, Evan A. “Dari Reformasi Militer Menuju Transformasi Per-tahanan: Tantangan Dan Prospek Ke
Depan.” Jurnal Indonesian Review 1, no. Agustus (2010): 2–14.
Lombardi, Clark B. “Constitutional Provisions Making Sharia ‘A’ or ‘The’ Chief Source of Legislation: Ehere Did They Come From? What Do They Mean? Do They Matter?” American University International Law Review 28, no. 3 (2013): 733–74.
Mengko, Diandra Megaputri. “Prob-lematika Tugas Perbantuan TNI.” Jurnal Keamanan Nasional 1, no. 2 (2015): 175–96.
Muhtarom, M. “Kedudukan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan Negara Da-lam Institusi Hukum Islam.” Jurnal Suhuf 27, no. Mei 2015 (2015): 22–37.
Nazar, Naureen. “Involvement of Mili-tary in Indonesia Politics.” Asia Pasi-fic, A Research Journal of Far East & South East Asia 25, no. June (2007): 75–89. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ishrat_Abbasi/publication/275031765_China’s_South_Asian_Curiosities_and_Strategies/links/552fc7480cf27acb0de70468/Chinas-South-Asian-Curiosities-and-Strategies.pdf#page=80.
Nurliana Binti Mohd. Hassan, Khairul Anwar Bin Mastor, Fariza Binti Mohd. Sham & Fazilah Binti Idris. “Bringing Islamic Leadership, Unity and Tolerance into Reality for the Stability of ASEAN Community.” Jurnal Reflektika 11, no. 11 (2016): 1–11.
Anwar, Dewi Fortuna. “Negotiating and Consolidating Democratic Civilian Control of the Indonesian Military.” In East-West Center Occasional Papers Politics And Security Series. Hawai, USA, 2001.
Haripin, Muhamad. “Relasi Sipil-Militer Dan Ancaman di Indonesia Pasca Orde Baru.” In Menimbang Demokrasi Dua Dekade Reformasi, ed-ited by Syamsudin Haris. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2019.
Huntington, Samuel P. “Civil Military Relation Reform.” In Civil Military Relation and Democracy, First., 3–16. Baltimore, USA, 1996.
Ikrar Nusa Bhakti, et all. Tni-Polri Di Masa Perubahan Politik. Edited by Al Araf. Ke-2. Bandung: Magister Studi Pertahanan ITB dan Imparsial, 2008.
Larry Diamond & Mark F. Plattner. Civil Military Relations and Democration. First. Baltimore, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Octavian, Amarulla. Militer Dan Global-isasi. Edited by Deniek G Sukarya. Kedua. Jakarta: PT Sukarya & Su-karya Pandetama, 2012.
Theo L Sambuaga. “TNI-Polri Di Masa Perubahan Politik.” In TNI-Polri di Masa Perubahan, edited by Al Araf, Petama., v–x. Jakarta: ITB dan Im-parsial, 2007.
U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Doctrine for Military Operations Other Than War. Pertama. Washington DC: De-partment of The Army and Depart-ment of The Navy US, 1995. https://www.bits.de/NRANEU/others/jp-doctrine/jp3_07.pdf.
Widjojo, Agus. “Reformasi TNI.” In TNI-Polri Di Masa Perubahan, edited by Al Araf, Pertama., 22–33. Bandung: ITB dan Imparsial, 2008.
Junaidi, Akhmad. “Kegagalan TNI Da-lam Membangun Demokrasi Di In-donesia Tahun 1966 - 1997.” Univer-sitas Jember, 2008.
Rikan, Korenlis. “Konsep Dwifungsi ABRI Dan Perannya Dimasa Pemerintahan Orde Baru Tahun 1965-1998.” Yogyakarta, 2014.
Suwantinah. “Analisis Fiqh Siyasah Tentang Bela Negara Di Indonesia.” Universitas Islam Negeri Raden In-ten Lampung, 2017.
Araf, Al. “Dinamika Peran TNI.” Diskusi Publik Quo Vadis Reformasi Militer. Jakarta, 2019.
Haris, Syamsuddin. “TNI Dan Refor-masi Sektor Keamanan, Quo Vadis ? (Diskusi Komnas HAM RI).” Jakarta, 2019.
Widjodo, Agus. “TNI Dan Reformasi Sektor Keamanan, Quo Vadis ? (Diskusi Komnas HAM RI).” Jakarta, 2019.
The 1945 Constitution, Amendment II.
MPR Decree No. VI / MPR / 2000 on the Separation of the Indonesian Na-tional Army from the Indonesian National Police.
Law Number 20 of 1982 on Principal Provisions for the Defense and Secu-rity of the Republic of Indonesia.
Law Number 8 of 1981 on Criminal Procedure Law.
Law Number 31 of 1997 on Military Jus-tice.
Law Number 34 of 2004 on the Indone-sian National Army.
Law Number 5 of 2018 on the Amend-ment of Law Number 15 of 2003 on the Stipulation of Government
Regulations in Lieu of Law Number 1 of 2002 on the Eradication of Ter-rorism Crimes Into Law.
Presidential Regulation No. 37 of 2019 on Functional Positions of the Indo-nesian National Army.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.